The notable feature of the Charshangu Ersari group is the light outlining of the main designs, as is seen in torba No. 21. The production of this village is notable also for a special clarity, transparency, and richness of colors and, amazing even for the Ersari group, a silkiness of wool. Rugs woven close to the Afghanistan villages of Charshangu, Halaj, Bosaga, and others differ from other Amu Darya production also in having darker coloring, used as the main tints of the ornaments. In addition, they had some unusual designs not known in other territories.
The central field of the main carpets of the Charshangu group is usually ornamented with octagonal medallions, their contours outlined by fine stripes of tegbent or alaja patterns. They often used the onurga gul with the temerjin element instead of the more traditional Ersari gul-i-gul (observe these elements decorating the upper part of the central field of torba No. 21).
Charshangu rugs are also often decorated with rows of small juval guls of a simple drawing and dyrnak figures which they called gosha kelle . The design of the main borders of Charshangu rugs is also very interesting. Although most other Ersari groups preferred gotchak, khamtos and pishik izi ornaments, in Charshangu rugs one more often finds sary gyra and taus darak motifs. Also characteristic of Charshangu compositions are two different wide borders with similar guard stripes. Moshkova considered this style to appear in the late l9th century, but the main carpet No. 20, which dates not later than early l9th century, shows that this style was popular much earlier.
20. ERSARI-CHARSHANGU Turkoman, KHALI
|Design: Badam |
Warp: Wool, gray, mixed with ivory and brown, Z2S
Weft: Wool, brown, Zl and Z2S (in some places), two shoots
Knot: Wool and cotton, Z2S, loose; asymmetric, open right; count: 11 per square inch (1,200 dm2)
Colors: Cherry red, pinkish orange, yellow, brown, dark blue, blue, green, Light green (not fast), white (wool and cotton); natural dyes
Sides: Two cables (3 warps in each) of warps overcast with red and blue wool, in a checkered pattern
Ends: 8" (21 cm) of red with green stripes flatweave, warp ends knotted in fringe
Purchased: 1902, "ghilam, carpet Uzbek Bashire, old"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 92
21. ERSARI-KIZIL AYAK Turkoman, ASMALYK
| Design: Medallion |
Warp: Wool, brown, mixed with ivory, Z2S
Weft: Wool, brown shades, mixed with ivory, Z2S and Zl (ivory), in some places dark ivory Z2S, two shoots
Knot: Wool, Z2S, in some places Z3S (red); asymmetric, open right; count: 1 horizontal (26), 10 vertical (41), 70 per square inch (1,066 dm2)
Colors: Bright red, pink-red, dark yellow, Eight brown, dark blue, blue-green, blue going to light blue, ivory, natural dyes
Sides: Two cables of warps plaited with pink-red wool; blue and red plait sewn to the edge
Ends: Upper: Red and dark blue striped flatweave folded over to the back and sewn down, blue and yellow braid on the face; Lower: Red and ivory flatweave cut, finish missing, multicolored fringe on 4 warps 24" (60 cm)
Purchased: 1900, Samarkand Province, "mafrach pile,. woolen, Bashire"
Published: First publication
"According to the reports of those who saw Kizil Ayak carpets woven at the places of their production, they organize into two or three groups by the villages where they were made. Every group has a rather definite character. This makes it possible to recognize the place in which this or that rug was woven. I can't of course judge myself how true it is. Still, comparing the information of A. Semyonov and the facts which I received just recently (before World War I), it is possible to say that the name Kizil Ayak carpet is just a common term, including several different types of rugs, manufactured in various villages and differing one from another mostly in coloring and also with some change of motifs and their reproduction.
A. Semyonov identifies Chakyr village (near Kerki town) where they produced ‘monocolored dark, rich red carpets with typical Kizil Ayak patterns, shaded in black and dark blue; Charshangu village produced carpets named as Charshangu'. According to my information they produced rugs also in the village of Mashpaya. The difference in coloring of these three groups is that Kizil Ayak and Chakyr rugs occupy a place in between the two other groups in coloring. They are lighter than Charshangu carpets, while the Mashpaya carpets are lighter than Kizil Ayak ones. At the time when the great demand for rugs started and they began to produce them everywhere, Mashpaya separated from Charshangu. In Mashpaya they began to use aniline dyestuffs in quantity, while in the old centers the population continued to use both vegetal dyes and aniline."
Dudin also paid attention to the similarity of Kizil Ayak and Tekke ornamentation, though he thought it was only the result of imitating the popular Tekke carpets. I believe it was due much more to the ancient ethnic relationships of the Kizil Ayak clan and Merv Tekkes.
As a whole Kizil Ayak rug and carpet ornamentation is much closer to the traditional Turkoman canon than that of Beshir or Charshangu types. It is noted also that they often used motifs which were popular among the Arabachis, Salors, and Saryqs, in particular the kejebe composition, but in a slightly different variant. The composition of asmalyks is very complicated as represented by No. 22 and has a definite relationship. They are often called torbas which have a definite relationship to the whole number of compositions used in the rugs of Western Anatolia and in the Kazak group.
22. CHODOR (?) Turkoman, KAPUNUK (fragment)
|Design: Diamond gul |
Warp: Wool, ivory, Z2S, depressed
Weft: Wool, white and light brown (camel ?), Z2S, very fine, two shoots
Knot: Wool, Z2S, Z3S (dark blue), rather thick; asymmetric, open right; count: 116 per square inch (1,798 dm2)
Color: Bright red, cherry-violet-red, orange-red, yellow-biege; brown, yellow, dark blue, green, light blue, ivory (the kapunuk is smoked); natural dyes
Sides: Four warps overcast with green, red and orange wool
Ends: Upper: Dark blue and ivory flatweave is folded over to the back and sewn down, remains of multicolored flat tassel in the right comer Lower: Middle folded over and sewn down remains of multicolored fringe, 9" (24 cm) on each side are cut, no finish
Purchased: 1900, Samarkand Province, "mafrach, old, woolen, Kizil Ayak"
Published: First publication. cf. Loges, 107
23. UZBEK of Samarkand Province CHINAKAP
|Design: Alma Bagi |
Warp: Wool, ivory mixed with brown, Z2S, thick, loose
Weft: Wool, dark brown, Zl, thick
Knot: Wool, Z2S, thick; symmetric; count: 11 per square inch (l76 dm2)
Colors: Pink-red, yellow, brown, brown-red, reddish yellow; dark blue, blue-green, ivory; natural and synthetic dyes
Sides: No additional finish, sewn together, long tassels
Ends: Upper: White flatweave folded over to the back and sewn down, in the corners, loops with multicolored plaited handle; Lower: Flatweave sewn together in the shape of a triangle
Purchased: 1900, Samarkand Province, "khourdjum - saddlebag, two pile multicolored woolen bags, with geometrical ornament...for attaching to the saddle, Samarkand Province, Sarts"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 123
24. ERSARI Turkoman or UZBEK, TORBA
Design: Dyrnak |
Warp: Wool, ivory, Z2S
Weft: Wool, brown, Zl, two shoots
Knot: Wool, Z2S, Z3S, Z4S, Z5S; asymmetric, open left; count: 134 per square inch (2,088 dm2; pile looks up
Color: Cherry red, pink-orange, light brown, yellow, dark blue, two tints of green-blue, white; natural dyes
Sides: Five warps overcast with multicolored wool
Ends: Upper: Green, red, ivory and brown flatweave folded over to the back and sewn down; Lower: 2 cm of red, gray and ivory flatweave, folded over to the back and sewn down, remains of multicolored fringe on 4 warps
Purchased: 1900, Samarkand Province, "mafrach, pile, woolen, old, Kizil Ayak"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 125
25. UZBEK, TENT SHELF
|Design: Chark Palek (Stars)|
Warp: Wool, white mixed with brown, Z2S, thick, slightly depressed
Weft: Wool, brown, Z2S, two shoots
Knot: Wool, Z2S, Z3S (cherry red) and silk, Z2S, Z4S; asymmetric, open left; count: 6 horizontal (25.5), 8 vertical (31.5), 48 per square inch (803 dm2)
Colors : Cherry red, orange-red, pink (silk) yellow, dark brown (dyed), blue, green-blue, bright blue-green, light green (silk), ivory; natural and synthetic dyes
Sides: Left missing; right plait on 3 pairs of warps
End: Upper: Red and brown flatweave, end folded over on back and sewn down, remains of a band on the right corner; Lower: Red and brown flatweave, finish missing
Purchased: Samarkand, "mafrach Kizil Ayak, pile, woolen, without fringe"
Published: First publication
26. KIRGHIZ; JUVAL
|Design: Horizontal stripes |
Warp: Wool, ivory mixed with brown, Z3S
Weft: Wool, brown and white, Zl, thick, two shoots
Knot: Wool, Z3S; asymmetric, open left; count: 1 horizontal (28), 10 vertical (40), 70 per square inch (1,120 dm2)
Colors: Red, brick red, yellow, two tints of dark blue, green-blue, violet-red, white; natural dyes
Sides: One warp cable overcast with red wool
Ends: Upper: red flatweave with two red and blue plaits, 1 cm folded down to the back and sewn on; Lower: red and gray flatweave, folded down to the back and sewn on
Purchased: 1901, Samarkand, "Ferghana woolen rug"
Published: Tsareva. Rugs . pl. 141
27. KIRGHIZ KHUDURSHA KOSH JABYK
|Design: Alma Bagi |
Warp: Wool, light brown mixed with white, Z2S
Weft: Wool, light brown mixed with white, Z2S, loose, one shoot
Knot: Wool Z2S; asymmetric, open left; count: 1.5 horizontal (30), 1.5 vertical (30), 56 per square inch (900 dm2)
Color: Brick red, pink, violet-red, yellow, brown, blue, green-blue, ivory; natural dyes
Sides: Weft finish no additional wrapping
Ends: Upper: brown flatwoven, folded over to the back and sewn down, plaited blue fringe sewn on to the ends, cords to the ends; Lower: Light brown flatweave, no additional finish
Purchased: 1901, Bauka, Altai Valley, "Ayakoch, small square rug, tied up under the uuks and is used as a shelf for service and other small items"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 142
The main carpet weaving tribe of the Ferghana Valley Kirghiz were the Ichkiliks and also some clans of the Sol (Left Wing). The Khydyrsha clan of the Kandi tribe of the Sol must be mentioned in particular.25
"Kirghiz rugs, in the quality of yarns, fabric, knot ratio (from 600 to 800 knots per square decimeter), length and regularity of pile clip do not differ much from Karakalpak rugs. Many of their ornamental elements also coincide with those of Karakalpak carpets but are poorer in coloring and limited to three colors or perhaps four. Kirghiz carpets are known to be produced by the Gydyrsha (Khydyrsha) tribe, Mangit and others inhabiting Ferghana and Semirechye Provinces. Rugs are also made by Kirghiz who migrate to the Western part of Chinese Turkestan...it is possible to make a distinction between the products of one and the other only by the greater or lesser degree of Chinese influence on the ornamentation, singling out as Chinese Kirghiz the ones in which the elements are more numerous and brightly expressed....
"The ground of Kirghiz carpets is definitely separate from the ornaments. The coloring of motifs follows the same rule as the pattern's composition that is two and one axis symmetry. Even repeating the same elements in a long row, they do not often use all possible colors, usually limiting themselves to two shades. Most often only similarly colored motifs are distributed diagonally both in the center and in the borders of the carpets. That's why Kirghiz rugs are less intricate, more dull... It is difficult to say what was the reason for this deviation from a common Central Asian manner of color distribution. It would be very interesting to know the reason, especially as in all other respects Kirghiz carpets are very close to Central Asian... I have only one explanation: the carpet ornamentation of the Kirghiz is adapted by them from felt rugs and was created long ago, similar to Uzbeks and Turkomans. But the Kirghiz started to weave pile articles later and that is why, using their traditional motifs in multicolored compositions, they first followed a common tradition of diagonal distribution of colored elements. Later under the influence of Chinese carpet weaving, they lost it and began to follow a Chinese system of color distribution with a single ornament on the ground."
Such ideas of S. M. Dudin permit us to consider him as one of the most important theoreticians of Central Asian carpet weaving scholarship. Even lacking the variety and richness of material available to modern researchers, he made conclusions on the character of Kirghiz carpet weaving which are accepted even today.
Praying Sart. Samarkand Province.
Wandering. The pack horse is loaded with the (tent's) roof circle. Struts. Reed screens, and long forked pole used to assemble the yurt.
S.M. Dudin, 1901
28. KIRGHIZ, ESHIK TYSH |
5'4"x3'2" (142x95 cm)
Late 19th century, SME No. 14-33
Design: Ensi layout |
Warp: Wool, brown plied with white, Z2S Weft: Wool, gray mixed with brown, Z2S,very thick, one shoot
Knot: Wool, Z2S; asymmetric, open left; count: 37 per square inch (572 dm2)
Colors: Pink-red, red, brown, gray-brown, bright red, dark blue, blue, white; natural and synthetic dyes
Sides: Weft finish, no additional wrapping
Ends: Upper: Gray-brown flatweave, warp ends plaited; Lower: Gray-brown flatweave
Purchased: a village on Taka River, Altai Mountains, ‘Ishik tysh, outward pile yurt door (inward is manufactured or reed); Kara-Kirghiz, ipchaks"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 140
Dudin wrote at the end of his work: "To finish with the whole range of Central Asian rugs and carpets it remains to mention Afghan and Baluch rugs...which I met in my time in rather significant quantities in the Central Asian carpet bazaar." Dudin considered these carpets to be related to the Turkomans, though with some reservation. Modern scholars describe them as an individual group and this is undoubted, though of course there are some common features in carpet weaving of both groups -- both because of relatives on the Iranian line and thanks to some common historical events, territory, and way of life.
29. BALUCH of Central Asia, KHORJIN
| Design: All-over rectangles |
Warp: Wool, ivory, Z2S
Weft: Wool, brown, Z2S, very fine, two shoots
Knot: Wool, Z2S; asymmetric, open left; count: 11 horizontal (44), 19 vertical (74), 209 per square inch (3,256 dm2)
Colors: Cherry red, orange-red, dark brown (dyed), black-brown (corroded), bright dark blue, green-blue, blue, ivory; natural dyes
Sides: Brown plait on 2 warps of red color
Ends: Upper: Brown flatweave with two braids; Lower: Missing
Purchased: 1900, Samrkand bazaar, "Khourgjin's rug, woolen, Baluch"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 153
If we will abstract from these two pieces and return to the ordinary production, we shall notice some common features with Ersari carpets. It may be this was because of the market nature of the carpet production of both groups. Carpet weaving became commercial for both groups years ago. Dudin for example wrote: "...these pieces in composition, coloring and many patterns...come close to the Ersari group...." The Baluch and Afghan parts of Dudin's collection are represented, all in all, by a sizeable number of really superb items. These do honor to any of the best collections and should be of great interest to specialists.
30. BALUCH, RUG
Design: Badam |
Warp: wool, ivory, Z2S
Weft: Wool, fine brown, Z2S, Zl, two shoots
Knot: Wool, Z2S, Z3S (red, ivory, dark brown and dark blue); asymmetric, open left; count: 12 horizontal (47), 15 vertical (60), 180 per square inch (2820 dm2)
Colors: Cherry red, orange-red, violet-brown, dark blue, blue-green, light blue, black, ivory; natural dyes
Sides: Two cables of warps (Z6S) wrapped and plaited with orange wool
Ends: Upper: brown flatweave with red stripe; Lower: Missing
Purchased: 1900, Samarkand bazaar, "Baluch"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 152
26. Two other pieces of the same type belonging to the SME and one to the SH are attributed to the Kirghiz as they were purchased in Kirghiz villages as local production.